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  • 303-305: Christenverfolgung des Kaisers Maximian
  • 3,628 Martyrs at Nicomedia (303-305) 2. September
  • hl. Märtyrer Julian von Anazarbus gest. 305 - 16. März
    • Julian von Anazarbus, Märtyrer († um 305 - 311) bzw. Julian von Tarsus (von Cilicien), Märtyrer
  • hl. Märtyrer Papas von Lycaonia gest. 305 - 16. März
    • Papas, Märtyrer in Lyconia († um 305 - 311)
  • Martyrs Dadas, Quinctillian and Maximus, the Lectors (ca. 284-305) - 13. April
  • Martyr Ardalion the Actor, who suffered under Maximian (305-311) - 14. April
    • † um 309 in Rom - Ardalion (der Nichtstuer latein.) war Schauspieler in Rom. Während einer Aufführung zur Verspottung der Christen wurde er erleuchtet, er ließ sich taufen und starb den Martertod durch Verbrennen bei lebendigem Leib.
  • Chrysogonus Märtyrer * in Rom † daselbst oder um 303 in Aquileia in Italien Die Tradition in Aquileia berichtet, Chrysogonus sei vor 314 Bischof von Aquileia gewesen und in den Verfolgungen unter Kaiser Diokletian durch Enthauptung gestorben. Gedenktag orthodox: 24. November, 22. Dezember
  • Helena römische Kaisermutter * um 249 in Drepanon, später Helenopolis, heute Hersek in der Türkei Bevor Konstantius I. mit Einführung der Tetrarchie im Jahr 293 zum Kaiser des Römischen Reiches ernannt wurde, verstieß er 289 Helena wegen ihres niederen Standes, um Flavia Maximiana Theodora, die Stieftochter des Kaisers Maximianus, zu heiraten. Er machte Augusta Treverorum - das heutige Trier - zu seiner Residenz; auch Helena behielt weiterhin Einfluss. Die führenden heidnischen Familien verachteten Helena wegen ihrer Herkunft, aber sie - intrigant, autoritär und völlig bedenkenlos 2 - tat nun, unterstützt durch die Christen, alles, um Theodora von Konstantius zu trennen, sie samt Familie in einen Seitentrakt des Palastes zu verdrängen und ihrem Sohn den Thron zu sichern † 18. August (?) 329 (?) in Nikomedia, heute Ízmit in der Türkei - 16. April? Gedenktag katholisch: 18. August - Todestag: 15. April - Gedenktag orthodox: 6. März, 21. Mai

1. Mai 305: Matters having been thus concerted, Diocletian and Galerius went in procession to publish the nomination of Caesars. Every one looked expectantly at Constantine; for there was no doubt that the choice would fall on him. The troops present, as well as the chief soldiers of the other legions, who had been summoned to the solemn ceremony, fixed their eyes on Constantine, overjoyed in the hope of his approaching appointment, and occupied themselves in prayers for his prosperity. Near three miles from Nicomedia there is an eminence, on the summit of which Galerius formerly received the purple; and there a pillar, with the statue of Jupiter, was placed. There went the procession. An assembly of the soldiers was called. Diocletian, with tears, harangued them, and said that he had become infirm, that he needed rest after his hard life, and that he would resign the empire into hands more vigorous and able, and at the same time appoint new Caesars. The spectators, with the utmost earnestness, waited for the nomination. Suddenly he declared that the Caesars were Severus and Maximinus. Everyone was amazed. Constantine stood near in public view, and men began to question amongst themselves whether his name too had not been changed into Maximinus; when, in the sight of all, Galerius, stretching back his hand, put Constantine aside, and drew Maximinus forward, and, having divested him of the garb of a private person, set him in the most conspicuous place. All men wondered who he was and where he came from, but no one ventured to interpose or move objections, so confounded were their minds at the strange and unlooked-for event. Diocletian took off his purple robe, put it on Maximinus, and resumed his own original name of Diocles. He descended from the tribunal, and passed through Nicomedia in a chariot; and then this old emperor, like a veteran soldier freed from military service, was dismissed into his own country; while Maximinus, lately taken from the tending of cattle in forests to serve as a common soldier, immediately made one of the life-guard, presently a tribune, and next day Caesar, obtained authority to trample under foot and oppress the empire of the East; a person ignorant alike of war and of civil affairs, who became a leader of armies shortly after being a shepherd.

Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 19.1

1. Mai 305: When Diocletian and Maximian, surnamed Herculius, had by mutual consent laid aside the imperial dignity, and retired into private life, Maximian, surnamed Galerius, who had been a sharer with them in the government, came into Italy and appointed two Caesars, Maximinus in the eastern division of the empire, and Severus in the Italian.

Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica 1.2

1. Mai: Die Kaiser Diokletian und Maximian treten entsprechend dem System der Römischen Tetrarchie nach zwanzig Jahren Amtszeit ab. Ihre Nachfolger werden die bisherigen Caesaren („Unterkaiser“) Constantius I. und Galerius. Zu den neuen Caesaren werden Flavius Valerius Severus und Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximinus ernannt.