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Benutzer:Christian/Petru (Arhiepiscopul Alexandriei) + Benutzer:Christian/Clement (Papă al Romei)

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Aramäischer Kalender

Griechischer Kalender

  • Κλήμεντος Πάπα Ρώμης (†101)
  • Πέτρου επισκόπου Αλεξανδρείας (†311)
  • Ερμογένους επισκόπου Ακραγαντίνων
  • Μαρτύρων Αλεξάνδρου του εν Κορίνθω, Ευγενίου, Θεοδώρου του Αντιοχέως, Μερκουρίου του Ρώσου, Προκοπίου και Χριστοφόρου
  • Φιλουμένου, Χριστόφορου και Χρυσογόνου
  • Οσίων Γρηγορίου του εν τη «Χρυσή Πέτρα», Καρίωνος, Μάλχου και Μάρκου του Τριγλινού

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https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A0%CF%8D%CE%BB%CE%B7:%CE%9F%CF%81%CE%B8%CE%BF%CE%B4%CE%BF%CE%BE%CE%AF%CE%B1/%CE%95%CE%BF%CF%81%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%BB%CF%8C%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%BF

Κλήμης Ρώμη

Ο Κλήμης Α' ή Κλήμης Ρώμης ή Άγιος Κλήμης (στα λατινικά Clemens Romanus, Ρώμη ; - Κριμαία περ. 98) ήταν ο τρίτος επίσκοπος Ρώμης (Πάπας, 88-97 ή 92-101) και μία από σημαντικότερες προσωπικότητες της πρωτοχριστιανικής εκκλησίας. Σήμερα θεωρείται Αποστολικός πατέρας διότι μαθήτευσε δίπλα σε αποστόλους, αλλά και διότι θεωρήθηκε πως χειροτονήθηκε από αυτούς. Υπήρξε εκκλησιαστικός ηγέτης με σημαντικό κύρος, ενώ η γραμματεία του από πολύ νωρίς εξελήφθη από την εκκλησία ως ισαποστολικού κύρους, με αποτέλεσμα τα έργα του από μερικές εκκλησίες να τοποθετηθούν ακόμα και στον Κανόνα της Καινής Διαθήκης[1]. Εκκλησιαστικοί συγγραφείς[2] μάλιστα ταύτιζαν τον Κλήμη, με το συνεργάτη του Αποστόλου Παύλου, που αποκαλείται με το ίδιο όνομα στην «Προς Φιλιππησσίους επιστολή»[3].

Ο βίος του

Για το βίο του Αγίου Κλήμεντος υπάρχουν πενιχρές και συγκεχυμένες πληροφορίες. Το πού και πότε γεννήθηκε δεν είναι γνωστό. Με βάση τη μαρτυρία των Κλημεντείων[4], κατεβλήθη η προσπάθεια να ταυτιστεί με το γόνο της τότε βασιλευούσης οικογένειας της Ρώμης, ύπατο Φλάβιο Κλήμεντα, ο οποίος φονεύτηκε από τον εξάδελφό του Δομιτιανό για έγκλημα αθεότητος, δηλαδή ως χριστιανός[5][6]. Κάτι τέτοιο όμως φαίνεται απίθανο διότι αφενός «αν συνέβαινε τούτο, αι σοβαραί χριστιανικαί πηγαί δε θα το ηγνόουν» και αφετέρου «ο επίσκοπος επέζησε του διωγμού του Δομιτιανού»[7]. Βάσει της δαψιλούς στην επιστολή χρήσεως της Παλαιάς Διαθήκης, εικάζεται πως πιθανώς ήταν Ιουδαϊκής καταγωγής[8], αν και κάτι τέτοιο δεν μπορεί να επιβεβαιωθεί.

Θεωρείται ο πρώτος Αποστολικός Πατέρας και ταυτίζεται από εκκλησιαστικούς συγγραφείς προς το μαθητή του Αποστόλου Παύλου, που κατονομάζεται ως Κλήμης στην «Προς Φιλιππησίους Επιστολή». Ο ίδιος ο Κλήμης, στην «Προς Κορινθίους» επιστολή του αναφέρει ότι τους γράφει ως «ο εορακώς τους μακαρίους αποστόλους... και την παράδοσιν προ οφθαλμών έχων»[9]. Ο επίσκοπος Ειρηναίος της Λυών (Λουγδούνου) τον κατατάσσει μεταξύ των συγχρόνων των Αποστόλων και αυτόπτη μάρτυρα του κηρύγματός τους, αλλά πως υπήρξε και ο τρίτος Επίσκοπος Ρώμης[10], που διαδέχθηκε τον Ανάκλητο. Υποστηρίζεται επίσης πως υπήρξε μαθητής του Λίνου, θεωρούμενου πρώτου επισκόπου Ρώμης, επίσης μαθητή του Αποστόλου Παύλου[11]. Ο Τερτυλλιανός μάς αναφέρει πως χειροτονήθηκε από τον Απόστολο Πέτρο και πως ήταν ο πρώτος επίσκοπος Ρώμης[12], κάτι που όμως ελέγχεται για την αξιοπιστία του[13].

Οι πληροφορίες περί της σειράς επισκοπείας του είναι γενικώς συγκεχυμένες. Έτσι υποστηρίζεται η άποψη πως είναι ο δεύτερος επίσκοπος Ρώμης μετά το Λίνο[14][15], πως είναι πρώτος επίσκοπος Ρώμης, διότι οι άλλοι δύο θεωρούμενοι επίσκοποι ήταν απλοί επίτροποι στην περιοδεία του Αποστόλου Πέτρου[16], αλλά και πως υπήρξε ο πρώτος και ο τρίτος επίσκοπος Ρώμης, αφού αρχικώς είχε παραιτηθεί της θέσεώς του, χάρη ομονοίας στην τοπική εκκλησία[17]. Πιθανώς βέβαια όλη αυτή η σύγχυση να προκλήθηκε λόγω του μη σαφούς διαχωρισμού των ρόλων πρεσβυτέρου και επισκόπου κατά την αποστολική εποχή και μέχρι το θάνατό τους[7].

Εν πάση περιπτώσει, ο Κλήμης Ρώμης υπήρξε αδιαμφισβήτητα η πλέον σημαντική φυσιογνωμία στην εκκλησία της Ρώμης κατά την μεταποστολική περίοδο. Διετέλεσε επίσκοπος από το 12ο έτος της βασιλείας του Δομιτιανού, μέχρι και το τρίτο έτος βασιλείας του Τραϊανού[18], δηλαδή μεταξύ των ετών 92 και 101. Η μαρτυρία μάλιστα κρίνεται αξιόπιστη αφού μαρτυρείται και από τον Ερμά[19]. Ο ίδιος φέρεται από κάποιες πηγές πως μαρτύρησε, αν και οι πληροφορίες φαίνεται να προέρχονται από μεταγενέστερες πηγές του δ΄ αιώνα. Σύμφωνα με αυτές, ο Κλήμεντας είχε εξορισθεί στη Χερσώνα, όπου μαρτυρικώς παρέδωσε τη ζωή του, αφού ρίφθηκε στη θάλασσα με κρεμασμένη άγκυρα στον τράχηλό του[20]. Όμως παραμένει απορίας άξιον πως ο Ειρηναίος δεν αναφέρει κάτι παρόμοιο, αλλά και ότι οι επισκοπικοί κατάλογοί του φέρουν μόνο επίσκοπο μάρτυρα μέχρι του Ελευθέρου τον Τελεσφόρο[21], τη στιγμή που ο Ευσέβιος μας πληροφορεί πως ο Κλήμης απεβίωσε φυσικώς[22]. Η μνήμη του τιμάται από την Καθολική Εκκλησία στις 23 Νοεμβρίου και από την Ορθόδοξη στις 24.

Η διδασκαλία του

Ο Κλήμης στη θεολογία του αρχικώς τονίζει πως οι εκκλησιαστικοί θεσμοί δεν αντλούν την δύναμή τους από το λαό, αλλά από το Θεό. Πηγή της αληθείας είναι Αυτός, ο οποίος διαμέσου του Ιησού και των Αποστόλων κατέστησε τους κληρικούς στην εκκλησία του. Έτσι προτάσσει αφενός το θείο χαρακτήρα των εκκλησιαστικών αξιωμάτων, αλλά και την αποστολική διαδοχή, αρχές που «παρέμειναν θεμελιώδεις στο Κανονικό Δίκαιο»[23]. Μέσα από τις επιστολές του ο Κλήμης, καταδεικνύει την φυσική τάξη και αρμονία που υπάρχει στην πλάση, μια αρμονία που όλα γίνονται με μέτρο από το Δημιουργό, ενώ ταυτόχρονα την αντιπαραβάλει προς την κοινωνία των ανθρώπων, η οποία πρέπει να διέπεται από τις ίδιες αρχές.

Ο Κλήμης μέσω της επιστολής του κρίνει πως αρχή και ρίζα και του κακού είναι το συναίσθημα της ζήλειας, αφού λόγω της ζήλειας διαπράχθησαν όλα τα εγκλήματα της ιστορίας[24]. Γι'αυτό καταβάλει προσπάθεια να θέσει στη βάση της θεραπείας των ψυχών την αγάπη, όπου παραθέτει και ύμνο[25], παράλληλα προς αυτόν του Παύλου. Ταυτόχρονα όμως δεν παραλείπει να τονίσει την ανάγκη της μετανοίας[26], έτσι ώστε μέσω της πίστεως να επέλθει η «αθάνατη γνώσις», που είναι καρπός της πίστεως[27]. Η σωτηρία προκύπτει σε μια αξεδιάλυτη ενότητα στη ροή της ιστορίας από την εποχή του Αδάμ, μέσα στην οποία ο ιστορικός χώρος δράσης του άσαρκου Λόγου δεν είναι μόνο ο Ισραήλ, αλλά και οι εθνικοί, έστω και σε μικρότερη κλίμακα[28]. Ο Χριστός περιγράφεται με χριστολογική ορολογία παρόμοια με του Αποστόλου Παύλου της «Προς Εβραίους Επιστολής». Ο Θεός πάλι κατά τον Κλήμη είναι ύψιστος, σοφός δημιουργός, δεσπότης του κόσμου, ενώ ιδιαίτερο βάρος αποδίδει στο γεγονός της ανάστασης. Η εκκλησία για τον Κλήμη αντιπαραβάλλεται με δύο μορφές. Αυτή της πόλεως και του κράτους[29], τη στιγμή που προτάσσει την αναγκαία ενότητα των μελών του σώματός της[30], στα πρότυπα μιας ιδανικής πολιτείας.

Η χαρακτηριστική αυτή επιστολή του Κλήμεντος, που παρέχονται οι πληροφορίες για τη διδασκαλία του, είναι η «Προς Κορινθίους» επιστολή του, που αποστέλλεται στην οικεία εκκλησία γύρω στο 95, λόγω της προσπάθειας κάποιων χριστιανών να αντικαταστήσουν τους χειροτονημένους κληρικούς με άλλους της αρεσκείας τους. Η προβληματική αυτή αναπτύσσεται στην εποχή του, καθώς φαίνεται πως «κάποιοι αμφέβαλλαν για το αν οι πράξεις των μονίμων λειτουργών ήσαν τόσο έγκυρες, όσο και οι πράξεις των χαρισματούχων»[31], δηλαδή του μονίμου ιερατείου προς τους Αποστόλους και τους Προφήτες. Στο επίκεντρο αυτού του συγγράμματος βρίσκεται η αντίληψη περί αποστολικής διαδοχής, καθώς ο Κλήμης αναλαμβάνει να ξεκαθαρίσει πως η ιδιότητα των κληρικών πηγάζει από το Θεό και όχι από την ανθρώπινη θέληση, διότι άλλωστε αυτούς τους κληρικούς τους κατέστησαν άξιους οι ίδιοι οι χαρισματούχοι φορείς της ιεροσύνης. Ο ίδιος έτσι προτάσσει υπακοή, ταπεινοφροσύνη, υποταγή, δικαιοσύνη και αγνότητα, διότι ο σκοπός της εκκλησίας είναι η ειρήνη και η ομόνοια. Η επιστολή αυτή σε αυτό το σημείο γίνεται μάλιστα πολύ σημαντική διότι προτάσσεται ο φορέας της ιεροσύνης, που παρότι δεν απαντάται άμεσα το ζήτημα της «Αποστολικής διαδοχής», ζήτημα το οποίο θα ξεκαθαρίσει λίγα έτη αργότερα ο Ιγνάτιος, φέρει μια πρώτη φάση προτάσεως της αποστολικής διαδοχής και του κύρους των χειροτονιών.

Στην ίδια επιστολή χρησιμοποιεί επιχειρήματα που αντλεί από την πολιτική και ηθική φιλοσοφία των Ελλήνων και την κοσμολογία των Στωικών. Περιγράφει, έτσι, την αρμονία και την τάξη που επικρατούν στη φύση και ουσιαστικά καταλήγει στο συμπέρασμα ότι, όπως οι θείες αρχές καθιστούν τη δημιουργία «κόσμο», δηλαδή τάξη και αρμονία, κάνουν και την ανθρώπινη κοινωνία οργανωμένο σύνολο. Από αυτά συνάγεται ότι ο Κλήμης ήταν κοινωνός της ελληνικής παιδείας και δε δίσταζε να χρησιμοποιήσει την ελληνική φιλοσοφία στη θεολογία του.

Μια δεύτερη επιστολή, ή πιο ορθά ομιλία, γράφτηκε κατά τον δεύτερο αιώνα και αποδόθηκε παραδοσιακά στον Κλήμη, αμφισβητείται ως προς την αυθεντικότητα του συγγραφέα της από τους σύγχρονους λόγιους.

Υποσημειώσεις

  1. Η Προς Κορινθίους Επιστολή εξελήφθη στον Αλεξανδρινό κώδικα της βίβλου, ενώ η Συριακή εκκλησία θεώρησε την επιστολή μέρος της Αγίας Γραφής
  2. Ωριγένης, Ευσέβιος Καισαρείας κ.α.
  3. Προς Φιλιππησίους 4, 3
  4. recognitiones 7, 8
  5. Σουητώνιος, Domitianus 15
  6. Ρωμ. Ιστορία 67, 14
  7. 7,0 7,1 Παν. Χρήστου, «Ελληνική Πατρολογία, Τόμος Β΄, σελίς 359»
  8. ενθ.αν.
  9. Αριστείδη Πανώτη, Το Συνοδικόν της εν Ελλάδι Εκκλησίας, Αθήνα 2008, ISBN 978-960-8116-17-7, τόμ. Α΄, σελ. 70
  10. Έλεγχος Γ΄, 3, 3
  11. Αποστόλου Παύλου, «Α΄ προς Τιμόθεον επιστολή», 4, 21
  12. De praescr. haeret. XXXII, 2
  13. Στ. Παπαδόπουλος, «Πατρολογία», σελίς 160
  14. Αυγουστίνου, Epistola 53
  15. Οπτάτου Μιλέβης, De schismate Donatistorum 22
  16. Κατάλογος Δαμάσου
  17. Επιφανείου, Πανάριον, 27, 6
  18. Ευσεβίου Καισαρείας, Εκκλ. Ιστορία, 3, 15
  19. Όρασις 2, 4, 3
  20. Μαρτύριο του Αγίου Κλήμεντα 18-25
  21. Έλεγχος 3, 3, 3
  22. Ευσεβίου Καισαρείας, Εκκλ. Ιστορία, 3, 34
  23. Ιω. Ζηζιούλας, «Ελληνισμός και Χριστιανισμός», σελίς 178
  24. Προς Κορινθίους 9, 1
  25. ενθ.αν. 49, 2-5
  26. ενθ.αν. 57, 1
  27. ενθ.αν. 34, 6
  28. ενθ. αν. 55, 1
  29. ενθ.αν. 24, 25
  30. ενθ.αν. 37, 5
  31. Στυλιανός Παπαδόπουλος, «Πατρολογία», Τόμος Α΄, σελίς 160

Πηγές

  • Ιω. Ζηζιούλα, «Ελληνισμός και Χριστιανισμός», Εκδόσεις Αποστολική Διακονία, Αθήνα 2003
  • Στυλιανός Παπαδόπουλος, «Πατρολογία», Τόμος Α΄, Αθήνα 2000.
  • Παναγιώτη Χρήστου, «Ελληνική Πατρολογία», Τόμος Β΄, Εκδόσεις Κυρομάνος, Θεσσαλονίκη 2005
  • Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Εκδοτική Αθηνών, 1976, τόμος ΣΤ, σελ. 554-555
  • Encyclopædia Britannica 2007, άρθρο "Clement I, Saint" Vorlage:En.

Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι

Vorlage:Βικιθήκη Vorlage:Commonscat

https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A0%CE%AC%CF%80%CE%B1%CF%82_%CE%9A%CE%BB%CE%AE%CE%BC%CE%B7%CF%82_%CE%91%CE%84

Πέτρος Α΄ Αλεξανδρείας

thumb|right|150px|Ο Πέτρος Α΄ Αλεξανδρείας

Ο Πάπας και Πατριάρχης Αλεξανδρείας Πέτρος Α΄ (... - 25 Νοεμβρίου 311), ο αποκαλούμενος και «μάρτυς» κυβέρνησε την Εκκλησία της Αλεξανδρείας κατά την περίοδο των διωγμών του Διοκλητιανού.

Ήταν μορφωμένος και ενάρετος. Εξελέγη επίσκοπος περί το 299. Το 306 συνεκάλεσε Σύνοδο στη Λυκόπολη της Αιγύπτου, η οποία καταδίκασε τον επίσκοπο Μελίτιο Λυκοπόλεως. Ο Μελίτιος, ο οποίος ήταν συνδεσμώτης του Πέτρου, ακολουθούσε απέναντι στους πεπτωκότες κατά τους διωγμούς αυστηρή στάση και με αντικανονικές πράξεις επιδίωκε να υποκαταστήσει τον Πέτρο, επειδή ήταν πιο επιεικής. Ο Πέτρος θα αρνηθεί το βάπτισμα των Μελιτιανών, θα γράψει από τη φυλακή επιστολή με την οποία καθόριζε τον επιεική τρόπο αποδοχής των πεπτωκότων και απέτρεπε το εθελοντικό (εισπηδητικό) μαρτύριο. Είκοσι χρόνια μετά η Α' Οικουμενική Σύνοδος υιοθέτησε τη βασική θέση του Πέτρου, μειώνοντας τα τέσσερα έτη τιμωρίας που πρότεινε για όσους χριστιανούς είχαν θυσιάσει στα είδωλα χωρίς ιδαίτερες πιέσεις.[1]. Καταγγέλθηκε όμως από το Μελέτιο στον Αυτοκράτορα Μαξιμιανό Γαλέριο. Καταδιώχθηκε και, πριν συλληφθεί από τον έπαρχο Αλεξανδρείας, κάλεσε τους αρχιερείς του Αχείλλα και Αλέξανδρο και τους ζήτησε να τον διαδεχθούν. Κατόπιν παραδόθηκε στους δημίους του, οι οποίοι τον αποκεφάλισαν, τον Νοέμβριο του 311.

Η Εκκλησία τον ανακήρυξε άγιο και τιμά τη μνήμη του στις 24 Νοεμβρίου.

Συγγραφικό έργο

Όλα τα έργα του είναι χαμένα. Ό,τι ξέρουμε γι΄αυτά είναι τίτλοι από αποσπάσματα και κοπτικές μεταφράσεις.

  • Περί θεότητος (ενν. του Χριστού).
  • Περί της σωτήρος ημών επιδημίας
  • Περί ψυχής
  • Περί αναστάσεως
  • Επιστολή περί μετανοίας

Παραπομπές

  1. Στυλιανός Παπαδόπουλος, Πατρολογία, τομ. Β, Αθήνα, 1990, σελ.64

Πηγή

  • Στυλιανός Παπαδόπουλος, Πατρολογία, τομ. Β, Αθήνα, 1990, σελ.64-66

Βλέπε επίσης

https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A0%CE%AD%CF%84%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%82_%CE%91%CE%84_%CE%91%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%BE%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B4%CF%81%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82

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FEASTS

1. THE HOLY GREAT-MARTYR CATHERINE

Catherine was the daughter of King Constus. After the death of her father, she lived with her mother in Alexandria. Her mother was secretly a Christian who, through her spiritual father, brought Catherine to the Christian Faith. In a vision, St. Catherine received a ring from the Lord Jesus Himself as a sign of her betrothal to Him. This ring remains on her finger even today. Catherine was greatly gifted by God and was well educated in Greek philosophy, medicine, rhetoric and logic. In addition to that, she was of unusual physical beauty. When the iniquitous Emperor Maxentius offered sacrifices to the idols and ordered others to do the same, Catherine boldly confronted the emperor and denounced his idolatrous errors. The emperor, seeing that she was greater than he in wisdom and knowledge, summoned fifty of his wisest men to debate with her on matters of faith and to put her to shame. Catherine outwitted and shamed them. In a rage, the emperor ordered all fifty of those men burned. By St. Catherine's prayers, all fifty confessed the name of Christ and declared themselves Christians before their execution. After Catherine had been put in prison, she converted the emperor's commander, Porphyrius, and two hundred soldiers to the true Faith, as well as Empress Augusta-Vasilissa herself. They all suffered for Christ. During the torture of St. Catherine, an angel of God came to her and destroyed the wheel on which the holy virgin was being tortured. Afterward, the Lord Jesus Christ Himself appeared to her and comforted her. After many tortures, Catherine was beheaded at the age of eighteen, on November 24, 310 A.D. Milk, instead of blood, flowed from her body. Her miracle-working relics repose on Mount Sinai.

2. THE HOLY GREAT-MARTYR MERCURIUS

When Emperor Decius once waged war against the barbarians, there was in his army the commander of an Armenian regiment called the Martenesians. This commander was named Mercurius. In battle, an angel of the Lord appeared to Mercurius, placed a sword in his hand, and assured him of victory over his enemies. Indeed, Mercurius displayed wonderful courage, mowing down the enemy like grass. Following this glorious victory Emperor Decius made him chief commander of his army, but envious men reported Mercurius to the emperor for being a Christian, a fact which he did not hide but openly acknowledged before the emperor. Mercurius was tortured harshly and at length; he was cut into strips with knives and burned with fire. An angel of God appeared to him in prison and healed him. Finally, the emperor proclaimed that General Mercurius be beheaded in Cappadocia. When they beheaded him, his body became as white as snow and emitted a most wonderful incense-like fragrance. His miracle-working relics healed many of the sick. This most wonderful soldier of Christ suffered for the Faith sometime between the years 251 and 259 A.D. and took up his habitation in the Kingdom of his King and God.

3. THE HOLY VIRGIN MASTRIDIA

Mastridia lived in Alexandria and led a solitary life of prayer and handiwork. A young man, burning with bodily passion toward her, constantly harassed her. Not wanting to sin before God, and since she could not easily be rid of this unrestrained youth, St. Mastridia once asked him what attracted him most to her. He replied: "Your eyes!" Mastridia then took the needle with which she was sewing and put out her eyes. Thus, Mastridia preserved her peace and the young man's soul. The young man repented deeply, and became a monk.*)

This Mastridia apparently is not the same as the one who is commemorated on February 7. That Mastridia was from Jerusalem, while this one is from Alexandria. The former fled from scandal to the wilderness, while the latter put out her eyes.

http://www.westsrbdio.org/en/prologue/703-november-24

HYMN OF PRAISE

THE HOLY GREAT-MARTYR CATHERINE

The wise Catherine, an earthly princess,

Became a martyr for Christ the Savior.

Foolish Maxentius offered her life:

If she would consent to become his wife!

The holy Catherine, pure as gold,

Replied to the emperor thus:

"My betrothed is the Risen Christ,

And I desire not the love of a corrupt man.

You seek my body: the rotten seeks corruption,

Even as the incorrupt spirit seeks immortality.

The physical covering must wither away,

The true man takes care for his immortal soul.

Do what you wish, and torture me--

Burn me in the fire, turn me on a wheel;

I cannot renounce my own soul,

Nor worship any but Christ as God.

Remember, O Emperor, soon you will die,

And worms will erupt from your corpse--

Worms will glorify you, worms will eat you,

A curse will accompany you, and a curse will meet you:

For you dare wage war against Christ, Who is mightier than death.

You stand under the Rock, and He will crush you."

Holy Catherine, Christ's virgin,

You despised the throne for eternal truth's sake;

And thus now reign in the Kingdom without end,

And sing with the angels, in the midst of sweet Paradise.

http://www.westsrbdio.org/en/prologue/703-november-24

REFLECTION

A tale of Elder Barlaam to Ioasaph: The citizens in a certain town had a custom of choosing as king a stranger who did not know their laws and customs. After they had crowned him king, they clothed him in beautiful robes, fed him abundantly and surrounded him with every luxury. However, as soon as one year had elapsed, they deposed their king, stripped him of all his goods and his clothes, and drove him completely naked to a distant island, where he had neither bread nor roof nor companions, and where he would die in misery and humiliation. The citizens of this town would then choose another king, also a stranger and also for one year; then a third, then a fourth, then a fifth and so forth. But it once happened that they chose a very wise and cautious man. He learned from his servants what had happened to the kings of this town after their year. Therefore, over the course of the whole year he zealously gathered food and goods and daily sent them to that island. When the year had run out and when he was stripped of his clothing and cast onto the island, he found himself amidst an enormous quantity of food, silver, gold and precious stones, and continued to live there even better than he lived as king in that town. The interpretation is this: The town represents the world; the citizens represent the evil spirits; the kings are men, either foolish or wise. The foolish men think only of the pleasures of this life, as if it were eternal; but in the end, death cuts everything off and they, naked of all good works, go to hell. The wise, however, perform many good works, and send these good works ahead of them to the other world. At their repose, the wise kings--the good men--depart to that world where their accumulated riches await them, and where they reign in greater eternal glory and beauty than they reigned here on earth.

http://www.westsrbdio.org/en/prologue/703-november-24

CONTEMPLATION

Contemplate the wondrous creation of the world (Genesis 2):

1. How God brought all animals, birds and beasts before Adam, to see how he would name them;

2. How Adam gave a name to every animal and every bird and every beast.

http://www.westsrbdio.org/en/prologue/703-november-24

HOMILY

on Him Who descended and ascended

He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that He might fill all things (Ephesians 4:10).

In His love for man, the Lord Jesus Christ lowered Himself so low that He could go no lower; and then raised Himself so high that, in truth, He could go no higher. He descended into the lower parts of the earth (Ephesians 4:9): into hades itself, where He freed the forefathers, prophets and righteous ones, and led them into the Kingdom of Heaven. Completing His work both on earth and in hades, He ascended far above all heavens. The same One Who ascended is the very same One Who descended without any change, except that He descended without a body, and ascended with a body. Therefore, there are not both a Son of God and a Son of Man as heretics have said, but Christ is both the Son of God and the Son of Man--one and the same Person--one and the same God-man, our Savior Jesus Christ. As He is the same yesterday, today and tomorrow, so He is the same in the depths and in the heights: on earth, in hades, and in the heavens. He abased Himself lower than all men, and raised Himself above all the angelic powers, to show by example the truthfulness of His words: And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted (Matthew 23:12). If we are not humbled by virtues, then sin will humble us. Virtue leads to voluntary and temporary abasement, but sin leads to irreversible and eternal abasement.

O Lord Jesus, Who fills all by Thy power, fill us with the spirit of true humility.

To Thee be glory and praise forever. Amen.

http://www.westsrbdio.org/en/prologue/703-november-24

Russischer Kalender

Rumänischer Kalender

http://paginiortodoxe.tripod.com/vsnov/index.html

Sfinții zilei

  • Sf. Clement, episcopul Romei
  • Sf. Sfințit Mucenic Petru, episcopul Alexandriei
  • Sf. Cuvios Malh
  • Sf. Cuvios Carion
  • Sf. Ermoghen, episcopul acragandinilor
  • Sf. Filumen și Hristofor
  • Sf. Evghenie
  • Sf. Procopie și Hristofor
  • Sf. Mucenic Alexandru cel din Corint și Preacuviosul Părintele nostru Grigorie
  • Sf. Mucenic Teodor cel din Antiohia
  • Sf. Cuvios Mucenic Hrisogon și Cuviosul Marcu Trigleanul

https://ro.orthodoxwiki.org/24_noiembrie

Evenimente

Nașteri

Decese

Sărbători

Sinaxar

Sinaxar 24 Noiembrie

În această lună, în ziua a douăzeci şi patra, pomenirea celui între sfinţi Părintelui nostru Clement, episcopul Romei.

Fericitul şi preaînţeleptul Clement era roman de neam şi se trăgea din neam împărătesc, fecior al lui Faust şi al Matildei. Deci, silindu-se la toată învăţătura înţelepciunii elineşti şi aflând pe Apostolul Petru, a fost învăţat de dânsul credinţa în Hristos cea adevărată şi făcându-se propovăduitor al Evangheliei şi scriind Aşezămintele Sfinţilor Apostoli, a fost făcut şi episcop al Romei. Însă fiind prins de împăratul Domiţian, a fost chinuit şi izgonit la o cetate pustie de lângă Cherson şi acolo, legându-i de grumaji o ancoră de fier de cele de corabie, l-au aruncat în adâncul mării; şi aşa s-a sfârşit de trei ori fericitul.

Iar Dumnezeul minunilor, şi după moarte mărind pe sluga Sa, a făcut o mare şi peste fire minune. Că de atunci şi în urmă în fiecare an la pomenirea Sfântului Clement se depărta apa de la mal ca la trei mile, lăsând să meargă ca pe uscat pe cei ce se duceau acolo să prăznuiască şapte zile, făcând astfel mare bucurie celor ce nădăjduiau în Domnul.

Deci odată, depărtându-se marea şi intrând poporul, şi săvârşind praznicul sfântului şi ieşind, s-a întâmplat că a rămas acolo un copil mic, uitat de părinţii lui. Iar marea întorcându-se şi locul iarăşi acoperindu-l, părinţii copilului plângeau şi se tânguiau pentru lipsa lui prin tot oraşul, pricinuind şi celorlalţi cetăţeni plângere şi jale. Iar a fost în anul următor, când iarăşi s-a retras marea în laturi, au mers şi au aflat copilul sănătos şezând lângă mormântul sfântului. Pe care întrebându-l cum s-a hrănit şi cum a fost păzit nevătămat, au aflat că l-a hrănit sfântul cel ce zăcea acolo şi l-a păzit cu darul rugăciunilor sale nevătămat de fiarele marii. Deci luându-l şi mulţumind sfântului s-au dus la casa lor slăvind pe Dumnezeu.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului sfinţitului Mucenic Petru, episcopul Alexandriei.

Acesta a trăit în zilele împăratului Maximian, fiind învăţător al dreptei credinţe şi propovăduitor al dogmelor celor drepte, căruia împăratul voia să-i taie capul căci aflase de cele ce făcea el. Atunci îl supără Arie cerând iertăciune, rugându-se şi tot poporul pentru aceasta. Iar sfântul neînduplecându-se, nu i-a dat iertare, ci l-a alungat blestemându-l şi zicând a fi despărţit de mărirea lui Hristos şi în veacul acesta şi în cel viitor. Că zicea către ei că a văzut pe Domnul în chip de cocon mic strălucind mai mult decât soarele, dar purtând o haină ruptă din cap până în picioare şi întrebându-L pentru ce-i este ruptă haina a aflat de la El că Arie i-a rupt-o. Cu semnul acesta Domnul arătă despărţirea şi osebirea ce a făcut Arie Fiului de către Tatăl, nemarturisindu-L pe El de o fiinţă cu Tatăl. Asemenea a arătat şi celelalte dogme şi cuvinte de hulă ale lui Arie. Acest sfânt s-a săvârşit după porunca împăratului prin tăierea capului, câştigând cununa cea neveştejită.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Cuviosului Malh, care cu pace s-a săvârşit.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Cuviosului Carion, care cu pace s-a săvârşit.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului Ermoghen, episcopul acragandinilor, care cu pace s-a săvârşit.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfinţilor Filumen şi Hristofor, care de sabie s-au săvârşit.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului Evghenie, care s-a săvârşit zidit într-o gaură.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului Procopie şi Hristofor, care de sabie s-au săvârşit.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului Mucenic Alexandru cel din Corint.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Preacuviosului Părintelui nostru Grigorie cel ce a pustnicit la Piatra de aur, care se trăgea dinspre părţile Răsăritului.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Sfântului Mucenic Teodor cel din Antiohia.

Acest sfânt a trăit pe vremea apostatului Iulian. Şi a fost prins de pe uliţă de eparhul Salustie, pentru o pricină ca aceasta: Când rău-credinciosul Iulian a poruncit ca să se ridice de la Dafne, adică dinaintea cetăţii Antiohiei, moaştele Sfinţilor Mucenici Vavila şi a celor împreună cu dânsul, atunci creştinii cei ce duceau sfintele moaşte cântau un psalm al lui David şi la fiecare stare ziceau stihul acesta: "Să se ruşineze toţi cei ce se închină celor ciopliţi". Pentru că păgânii socoteau biruinţă şi neputinţă a lui Apolon din Dafne mutarea sfintelor moaşte. Acest stih auzindu-l Iulian s-a tulburat. Deci după porunca lui a fost prins Sfântul Teodor acesta, fiindcă era şi el râvnitor bunei cinstiri şi era unul din cei ce cântau pomenitul stih. Şi fiind spânzurat pe lemn pătimitorul lui Hristos, a fost rănit pe spate de bătăile vinelor de bou şi i s-au jupuit coastele cu unghiile; şi aşa era chinuit sfântul de dimineaţa până în seara, apoi legat fiind cu lanţuri, a fost aruncat în închisoare.

Iar a doua zi, aflând Iulian de bărbăţia ce a arătat tânărul, şi ştiind câţi creştini rabdă până în sfârşit mucenicia şi că uciderea prin chinuri tiranilor li se socoteşte ruşine, iar mucenicilor li se socoteşte biruinţă, slavă şi bucurie, Paravatul a poruncit să libereze pe sfântul din închisoare.

După acestea au întrebat unii pe sfântul dacă simţea dureri în timpul chinurilor. La care a răspuns că la început simţea puţină oarecare durere; apoi i s-a arătat cineva ţinând în mâini o basma moale şi răcoritoare, cu care-i ştergea de pe obraz sudoarea şi-l îndemna spre îndrăzneală şi bărbăţie. Pentru aceasta când chinuitorii au contenit de a-l chinui, zicea sfântul că nu s-a bucurat pentru aceasta, ci mai vârtos s-a mâhnit. Căci prin contenirea chinurilor a contenit şi cel ce se arăta (care era înger ceresc) şi nu-i mai pricinuia lui mai mult îndrăzneală şi mângâierea cerească. Sfântul Teodor acestea pătimind, în veci se veseleşte cu Domnul, odihnindu-se cu pace.

Tot în această zi, pomenirea Cuviosului Mucenic Hrisogon şi a cuviosului Marcu Trigleanul.

Cu ale lor sfinte rugăciuni, Doamne, miluieşte-ne şi ne mântuieşte pe noi. Amin.

http://www.calendar-ortodox.ro/luna/noiembrie/noiembrie24.htm

Clement Romanul

Benutzer:Christian/Clement (Papă al Romei)

Cel întru sfinți părintele nostru Clement Romanul (uneori numit și Clement, episcopul Romei) a fost al treilea episcop al Romei după Apostolul Petru. Clement este cunoscut mai ales pentru Scrisoarea sa către Corinteni, scrisă în 95 sau 96 d.Hr. Este socotit un părinte apostolic. Prăznuirea lui se face la 24 noiembrie.

Viața

Se cunosc puține lucruri despre viața sfântului Clement. Scriitura sa pare să denote un autor provenit din iudaismul elenistic, convertit la creștinism.

Cei care au scris despre el - printre care Irineu de Lyon (130-202), Tertulian (sec. II-III), Eusebiu de Cezareea (sec. IV), Ieronim (sec. IV), Epifanie de Salamina (sec. IV) - au făcut-o după ce trecuse destul de mult timp de la moartea sa (dar urmând desigur surse sau tradiții pe care le-au avut la dispoziție).

Data nașterii Sf. Clement nu este cunoscută. El a fost un ucenic al Sfinților Apostoli Petru și Pavel din ultima perioadă a șederii acestora la Roma (anii 60 d.Hr.). Se pare că a fost hirotonit chiar de către Sf. Petru[1].

În epistola Sf. Apostol Pavel către Filipeni (Fil. 4, 3) se face o referire la un anume Clement („care au luptat pentru Evanghelie, împreună cu mine și cu Clement și cu ceilalți împreună-lucrători cu mine, ale căror nume sunt scrise în cartea vieții”), dar nu se poate stabili cu exactitate dacă este vorba chiar despre Clement Romanul[2].

Un alt Clement apare la sfârșitul viziunii a doua din scrierea apostolică Păstorul lui Herma; acesta este identificat de cei mai mulți specialiști ca fiind chiar Clement Romanul.[1]

Clement a fost ales episcop al Romei în jurul anului 88, ocupând acest rang ierarhic până în anul 98, când a murit. Despre moartea sa, datele sunt incerte. Sursele mai vechi relatează că ar fi murit de moarte naturală, în anul 98, probabil în Grecia. O tradiție care datează din secolul al IX-lea povestește despre martirizarea sa, în Crimeea, în anul 102, prin înecare, fiind aruncat peste bordul unei nave, cu o ancoră legată de el.

Scrisori

Scrisoarea (epistola) trimisă în anul 96 d.Hr. Bisericii din Corint în numele Bisericii din Roma, îi este atribuită sfântului Clement, episcopul Romei în acea perioadă. Scrisoarea a fost trimisă într-o încercare de a restabili pacea și unitatea în Biserica din Corint, unde câțiva oameni, aparent violenți, se revoltaseră împotriva conducerii comunității creștine de acolo.

O a doua scrisoare către Corinteni i-a fost, de asemenea, atribuită Sf. Clement inițial, pe baza faptului că ea a fost inclusă într-un manuscris grec vechi care conținea și prima scrisoare a lui Clement către Corinteni, cu titlul de „a doua Epistolă a lui Clement către Corinteni”. Există însă controverse asupra autorului real al acestei de a doua scrisori, deoarece atunci când partea de la sfârșit a epistolei (parte care lipsea din manuscrisul grecesc) a fost regăsită, aceasta s-a dovedit a fi o omilie a unui autor necunoscut.

Doctrina

Epistola Sfântului Clement Romanul către Corinteni are puține învățături intenționat dogmatice, fiind în mare măsură un îndemn de suflet la pace și bună înțelegere creștină.

Unul din cele mai importante pasaje este cel în care Sf. Clement mărturisește adevărul trinitar: „Nu avem oare un singur Dumnezeu și un singur Hristos și un singur Duh al harului revărsat peste noi?” (cap. 58).

În contextul scrisorii sale, Sf. Clement vorbește despre succesiunea apostolică: sfinții Apostoli au prevăzut certurile și dezbinările din Biserici, și de aceea au lăsat o succesiune de episcopi și diaconi, care nu poate fi eliminată după plăcerea oricui. (cap. 42-44)

Capitolele 59-61 cuprind o rugăciune euharistică care amintește de anaforalele liturgice cele mai vechi cunoscute.

Imnografie

Troparul Sfinților Clement Romanul și Petru al Alexandriei, glasul al 4-lea:

Dumnezeul Părinților noștri, care faci pururea cu noi după blândețile Tale, nu depărta mila Ta de la noi, ci, pentru rugăciunile lor, în pace ocârmuiește viața noastră.

Condacul Sfinților Ierarhi, glasul al 4-lea:

Ca cei ce sunteți turnuri neclintite și dumnezeiești ale Bisericii, stâlpi de Dumnezeu însuflețiți și puternici ai dreptei credințe, Clement și Petru, prealăudaților, ocrotiți pe toți cu mijlocirile voastre!

Iconografie

Dionisie din Furna arată că Sf. Sfințit Clement Romanul se zugrăvește ca un bătrân cu barba albă, lungă și lată. [3].

Note

  1. 1,0 1,1 Chapman, John, "Pope St. Clement I", in The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908
  2. Origen, Epifanie de Salamina, Eusebiu de Cezareea și Ieronim se află printre autorii vechi mai importanți care identifică pe Clement din Filipeni 4, 3 cu Clement Romanul — Kelly (1985). The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford University Press. pp. 7.
  3. Dionisie din Furna, Erminia picturii bizantine, ed. Sophia, București, 2000, pp. 153, 191.

Legături externe

https://ro.orthodoxwiki.org/Clement_Romanul

Petru I al Alexandriei

Benutzer:Christian/Petru (Arhiepiscopul Alexandriei)

right|Papa Petru I al Alexandriei (+311)

Sfântul Sfințit Mucenic Petru al Alexandriei a fost conducătorul Școlii catehetice din Alexandria și a fost arhiepiscop al Bisericii din Alexandria în timpul înfloririi ereziei ariene la începutul secolului al IV-lea. A primit moarte mucenicească în timpul persecuțiilor împăratului Dioclețian. Sfințitul Mucenic Petru este pomenit în 24 noiembrie sau, în alte tradiții, pe 25.

Viața

Nașterea și prima parte a vieții Sfântului Petru se cunosc în mare. Se crede că a crescut sub tutela arhiepiscopului Teona, predecesorul lui Petru în scaunul arhieresc al Alexandriei. Petru a condus Școala catehetică din Alexandria, care era la vremea aceea centrul teologiei Bisericii. Petru a fost ales arhiepiscop de Alexandria în anul 300, după moartea mentorului său, Teona, care l-a recomandat pe Petru liderilor Bisericii ca succesorul său.

Trei ani mai târziu, în 303, au început persecuțiile împăratului roman Dioclețian. Odată cu extinderea persecuțiilor, Petru a stabilit în Alexandria reguli pentru readmiterea, după o pocăință adecvată, înapoi în Biserică a celor care căzuseră din credință. Regulile sale i-au adus opoziția extremiștilor, conduși de Meletie, episcop de Licopolis, care l-a considerat pe Petru prea îngăduitor. În anul 306, Petru a fost obligat să părăsească Alexandria din cauza reluării persecuțiilor romane. În perioada în care a stat ascuns, Meletie a uzurpat poziția lui Petru ca episcop de Alexandria și a început să-și hirotonească adepții ca episcopi, chiar și în scaunele unde episcopii titulari erau în închisoare pentru apărarea credinței. Printre cei hirotoniți de Meletie întru preot se afla se pare și Arie, viitorul eretic, care nega divinitatea lui Hristos. După reîntoarcerea sa la Alexandria, Petru l-a anatemizat și excomunicat pe Arie după ce acesta a refuzat să-și corecteze poziția și să revină la adevăr.

În 311, Petru s-a reîntors la Alexandria, într-o pauză a persecuțiilor, dar a fost arestat curând și condamnat la moarte. La aflarea sentinței, o mulțime numeroasă, exprimându-și revolta, s-a adunat la porțile închisorii unde era ținut. Pentru a evita o răzmeriță, cu vărsarea de sânge pe care ar fi provocat-o, Petru le-a sugerat autorităților romane să-l ascundă în fundul închisorii astfel încât să poată fi dus pe ascuns la locul execuției. Călăii l-au luat pe Petru din închisoare în întunericul nopții și dus la locul unde primise moarte mucenicească și Sfântul Marcu și acolo Petru a fost decapitat. Tradiția menționează că în acea noapte o fecioară pioasă a auzit o voce din ceruri spunând: “Petru a fost primul dintre Apostoli; Petru este ultimul mucenic al Alexandriei.”

În perioada în care Petru a fost arhiepiscop, el a întărit Biserica din Alexandria, făcând-o mai puternică și mai mare în ciuda persecuțiilor. După executarea sa, poporul s-a adunat la locul execuției sale unde au luat trupul și capul și l-au dus la catedrală. Acolo l-au îmbrăcat în haine de episcop și l-au așezat pe tronul său din altar. În timpul vieții sale, Sfântul Petru a stat întotdeauna pe un taburet lângă tronul pe care nu a stat niciodată. Odată, el a explicat că nu îndrăznește să stea pe tron deoarece oricine se apropie de acesta vede o lumină divină strălucind din el și simte prezența puterii divine.

Scrieri

Sfântul Petru este cunoscut ca un mare teolog și susținător al Ortodoxiei. Sinoadele de la Efes și de la Calcedon au consultat pasaje din cărțile sale: Despre Divinitate (a lui Iisus Hristos). Cele mai cunoscute și prețuite în Biserică sunt Canoanele de penitență ale sale.

Imnografie

Troparul Sfinților Clement Romanul și Petru al Alexandriei, glasul al 4-lea:

Dumnezeul Părinților noștri, care faci pururea cu noi după blândețile Tale, nu depărta mila Ta de la noi, ci, pentru rugăciunile lor, în pace ocârmuiește viața noastră.

Condacul Sfinților Ierarhi, glasul al 4-lea:

Ca cei ce sunteți turnuri neclintite și dumnezeiești ale Bisericii, stâlpi de Dumnezeu însuflețiți și puternici ai dreptei credințe, Clement și Petru, prealăudaților, ocrotiți pe toți cu mijlocirile voastre!

Surse

OrthodoxWiki:Peter of Alexandria, pagină realizată după:

Legături externe

https://ro.orthodoxwiki.org/Petru_I_al_Alexandriei

Ukrainischer Kalender

Arabischer Kalender

Allgemeiner Kalender Aramäisch

Allgemeiner Kalender Griechisch

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Allgemeiner Kalender Mazedonisch

Allgemeiner Kalender Serbisch

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Allgemeiner Kalender Rumänisch

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Allgemeiner Kalender Englisch

Datei:East-Ortho-cross.png
The Eastern Orthodox cross

Nov. 23 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - Nov. 25

All fixed commemorations below are observed on December 7 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.[note 1]

For November 24, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on November 11.

Feasts

Saints

Pre-Schism Western saints

  • Saint Felicissimus, a martyr who suffered in Perugia in Italy, probably under Diocletian (c. 303)[14][15]
  • Saint Firmina, a virgin-martyr in Amelia (Ameria) in Umbria under Diocletian (c. 303)[14][note 4]
  • Saint Crescentian, a martyr in Rome with Sts Cyriacus, Largus and Smaragdus, under Maxentius (309)[14][note 5]
  • Venerable Protasius, Bishop of Milan (352)[1][14][note 6][note 7]
  • Saint Romanus of Le Mans (Romanus of Bordeaux), a Gallo-Roman priest who converted the pagans living at the mouth of the Gironde (385)[1][14][note 8]
  • Saint Minver (Menefrida), Virgin of Cornwall (5th century).[1]
  • Saint Kenan (Cianan), first bishop in Ireland to build his Cathedral, at Damleag or Duleek in Meath, of stone (c. 500)[14]
  • Venerable Portianus of Arthone, a slave who became a monk and then Abbot of Miranda in Auvergne in France (527 or 533)[1][14][note 9]
  • Saint Colmán of Cloyne, first Bishop of Cloyne (c. 600)[14][note 10]
  • Saint Leopardinus, monk and Abbot of St Symphorian of Vivaris in Berry in France, murdered and venerated as a martyr (7th century)[14]
  • Saint Bieuzy, born in Britain, he followed St Gildas to Brittany and was martyred there (7th century)[14][note 11]
  • Saint Eanflæd (Eanfleda), daughter of the holy King Edwin of Northumbria and St Æthelburh of Kent, Abbess at Whitby Abbey jointly with her daughter Ælfflæd (c. 700)[14][23]
  • Saint Marinus, a monk at Maurienne in Savoy, and afterwards a hermit near the monastery of Chandor where he was martyred by the Saracens (731)[14]
  • Saints Flora and Maria, two virgin-martyrs in Cordoba in Spain who gave themselves up to the Moors and were beheaded by order of Abderrahman II (851)[14][note 12]

Post-Schism Orthodox saints

New martyrs and confessors

  • New Hieromartyr Eugraphus Evarestov, Archpriest (1919)[1][31][note 14]
  • New Hieromartyrs Eugene[32] and Michael, Priests (1937)[1][25]
  • Virgin-martyr Anysia (1937)[1]
  • New Hieromartyrs Alexander, Alexis,[33] John,[34] Cornelius, and Metrophanes, Priests (1937)[1][25]

Other commemorations

  • Commemoration of Hieroconfessor Nikita (Lekhan) of Poltava and Kharkiv (1985)[10]

Icon gallery

Notes

Vorlage:Reflist

References

Vorlage:Reflist

Sources

Greek Sources

Russian Sources

  • Vorlage:Ru icon 7 декабря (24 ноября). Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).

el:Πύλη:Ορθοδοξία/Εορτολόγιο/24 Νοεμβρίου

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_24_(Eastern_Orthodox_liturgics)

Allgemeiner Kalender Deutsch

Kalender der Orthodoxen Bischofskonferenz in Deutschland

Bürgerliches Datum bei Benutzung des Julianischen Kalenders:

Deutscher Heiligenkalender (orthodox)

  • Alexander, Märtyrer in Korinth († um 260)
  • Alexander, Priester, Märtyrer, und Alexis, Priester, Märtyrer, und Johannes, Priester, Märtyrer, und Cornelius, Priester, Märtyrer, und Metrophanes, Priester, Märtyrer († 1937)
  • Augusta (Faustina) die Kaiserin, Märtyrerin, und Porphyrius der General, den Katharina von Alexandria bekehrte, Märtyrer, und 200 Soldaten, Märtyrer in Alexandria († 305 - 311)
  • Carion, Abt in der Sketischen Wüste
  • Clemens I., römischer Gemeindevorsteher, Märtyrer, Apostolischer Vater
  • Chrysogonus, Märtyrer
  • Eugen, Priester, Märtyrer, und Michael, Priester, Märtyrer, und Anisia, Märtyrerin († 1937)
  • Eugraph, Priester, Märtyrer († 1919)
  • Gregor von Khrisipetreia, Mönch, Gründer des Klosters "Chrysopetreia" "vom Goldenen Felsen" am Pontus († im 11. Jahrhundert [?])
  • Hermogenes, Bischof von Agrigent († um 260)
  • Katharina von Alexandria, Märtyrerin
  • Lukas, Verwalter in den Höhlen bei Kiew († im 13. Jahrhundert)
  • Malcos, Einsiedler
  • Markos von Trigleia, Hegumenos, Märtyrer
  • Mastridia von Alexandria, Jungfrau († 1060)
  • (Philopater) Mercurius, Märtyrer
  • Merkurii "der Beständige" ("der Faster", von Pechersk), in den entfernteren Höhlen († im 14. Jahrhundert)
  • Merkurii, griechischstämmiger Soldat, Bischof von Smolensk, Märtyrer († 1239)
  • Nikodemus (Nikomedes) der Jüngere von Philokalos in Thassaloniki, Mönch in Beröa in Makedonien († um 1305)
  • Petrus I., Bischof von Alexandria, Märtyrer
  • Philothea, Märtyrerin († 1060) (in Rumänien)
  • Philomenos Petros, Bischof von Alexandrien
  • Philomenos, Märtyrer, und Christophorus, Märtyrer, und Eugen, Märtyrer, und Procopios, Märtyrer, und Christophoros, Märtyrer († um 274)
  • Simon, Abt im Kloster Soiginsk (Vologda) († 1562)
  • Theodor von Antiochia, Märtyrer († 361/362)
  • Nachfeier von Mariä Opferung

https://www.heiligenlexikon.de/KalenderNovember/24.htm

Einzelnachweise (Sammlung)

  1. 1,00 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,10 1,11 1,12 1,13 1,14 1,15 1,16 1,17 1,18 1,19 1,20 1,21 1,22 1,23 1,24 1,25 1,26 1,27 1,28 1,29 December 7 / November 24. Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church (A parish of the Patriarchate of Moscow).
  2. Afterfeast of the Entry of the Most Holy Mother of God into the Temple. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  3. 3,00 3,01 3,02 3,03 3,04 3,05 3,06 3,07 3,08 3,09 3,10 3,11 3,12 3,13 3,14 3,15 3,16 3,17 3,18 The Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas (ROCOR). St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press (Austin, TX). p. 88.
  4. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Κλήμης ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας Ἐπίσκοπος Ρώμης. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  5. 5,00 5,01 5,02 5,03 5,04 5,05 5,06 5,07 5,08 5,09 5,10 5,11 5,12 5,13 Vorlage:Gr icon Συναξαριστής. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ECCLESIA.GR. (H ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ).
  6. Greatmartyr Mercurius of Caesarea, in Cappadocia. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  7. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἐρμογένης Ἐπίσκοπος Ἀκραγαντίνων. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  8. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Οἱ Ἅγιοι Προκόπιος καὶ Χριστόφορος οἱ Μάρτυρες. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  9. Greatmartyr Catherine of Alexandria. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 10,3 10,4 Dr. Alexander Roman. November. Calendar of Ukrainian Orthodox Saints (Ukrainian Orthodoxy - Українське Православ'я).
  11. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Οἱ Ἅγιοι Φιλούμενος καὶ Χριστόφορος οἱ Μάρτυρες. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  12. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Εὐγένιος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  13. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Χρυσόγονος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  14. 14,00 14,01 14,02 14,03 14,04 14,05 14,06 14,07 14,08 14,09 14,10 14,11 14,12 14,13 November 24. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  15. 15,0 15,1 15,2 15,3 15,4 15,5 15,6 15,7 15,8 The Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. p. 362-363.
  16. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Πέτρος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Ἀλεξανδρείας. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  17. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  18. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Θεόδωρος ὁ Μάρτυρας. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  19. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ὅσιος Μάλχος. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  20. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ὅσιος Καρίων. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  21. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ὅσιος Μᾶρκος ὁ Τριγλινὸς. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  22. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ὅσιος Γρηγόριος. 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  23. 23,0 23,1 Rev. Richard Stanton. A Menology of England and Wales, or, Brief Memorials of the Ancient British and English Saints Arranged According to the Calendar, Together with the Martyrs of the 16th and 17th Centuries. London: Burns & Oates, 1892. pp. 563-565.
  24. Virginmartyr Mastridia of Alexandria. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 25,3 Vorlage:Ru icon 7 декабря (24 ноября). Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  26. Great Synaxaristes: Vorlage:Gr icon Ὁ Ἅγιος Μερκούριος ὁ ἐν Σμολένσκη (Ρῶσος, † 238 μ.Χ.). 24 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  27. Martyr Mercurius of Smolensk. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  28. 28,0 28,1 Vorlage:Gr icon 24/11/2015. Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής.
  29. Venerable Mercurius the Faster of the Kiev Caves. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  30. Venerable Simon the Abbot of Soiga Monastery, Vologda. OCA - Lives of the Saints.
  31. Vorlage:Ru icon ЕВГРАФ. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  32. Vorlage:Ru icon ЕВГЕНИЙ. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  33. Vorlage:Ru icon АЛЕКСИЙ. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).
  34. Vorlage:Ru icon ИОАНН. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла (электронная версия). (Orthodox Encyclopedia - Pravenc.ru).

ARTIKELENTWURF

Gemeinsame orthodoxe Heilige im Kalender der Orthodoxen Bischofskonferenz in Deutschland

[1]

Weiteres Gedenken in aramäischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in griechischer Tradition

[2]

Weiteres Gedenken in georgischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in bulgarischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in mazedonischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in serbischer Tradition

[3]

Weiteres Gedenken in russischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in rumänischer Tradition

Weiteres Gedenken in ukrainischer Tradition

Einzelnachweise (Artikelentwurf)

  1. Gesellschaft Orthodoxe Medien (Hrsg. im Auftrag der Orthodoxen Bischofskonferenz in Deutschland): Orthodoxer Liturgischer Kalender 2016 (17. Jahrgang), Dortmund 2015
  2. Das Synaxarion - die Leben der Heiligen der Orthodoxen Kirche. In 2 Bänden. Gestützt auf die 6-bändige Ausgabe des Hl. Klosters Simonos Petra. Kloster des Hl. Johannes des Vorläufers, Chania (Kreta) 2006, ISBN 960-88698-0-3
  3. Nikolaj Velimirović: Der Prolog von Ochrid. Verlag Johannes A. Wolf, Apelern 2009, ISBN 978-3-937912-04-2


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